Research which supports the theories of the Lightning Process
There is much research supporting the concepts and theories underpinning the LP, some of the key papers are presented here:
Theoretical basis of the Lightning Process
For more information on the established scientific theories that underpin the Lightning Process, please click on the links :
- Neuroplasticity – the ability of the pathways of the brain to change and develop in response to learning and repetition. 1)“Definition of Neuroplasticity”, Medicinenet, 11 June 2004 https://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=40362 2)Adult Neuroplasticity: More Than 40 Years of Research https://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2014/541870/abs/
- The physiological effects of Adrenaline, Nor-Adrenaline & Cortisol in the “stress” response and allostatic load. 3)Mayo clinic staff, “Stress: Win control over the stress in your life”, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 12 September 2008 https://www.mayoclinic.com/health/stress/SR00001 4) Allostasis: A new paradigm to explain arousal pathology.https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1988-98352-000
- The interaction of the body, brain and mind. 5)Lerner, Baron H. “Can stress cause disease? Revisiting the Tuberculosis research of Thomas Holmes, 1949-1961”, Annals of Internal Medicine, n.d. 6)Davidson RJ, et al., “Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation.”, Psychosom Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;65(4):564-70. 7)Hennenlotter, Andreas, et al. “The Link between Facial Feedback and Neural Activity within Central Circuitries of Emotion- New Insights from Botulinum Toxin- Induced Denervation of Frown Muscles”, Cerebral Cortex Journal, June 17 2008
- The osteopathic theory of facilitation and the impact of changes in structure causing changes in function, 8)AACOM “Glossary of Osteopathic Terminology” (p 55) https://www.aacom.org/docs/default-source/insideome/got2011ed.pdf 9)“Osteopathy”, Osteohome, n.d. https://www.osteohome.com/index.html
- Positive psychology and the impact of neurobiology on health. 10)Cohen, S., & Pressman, S. D. (2006). Positive affect and health. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15(3), 122–125. http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~scohen/PA_and_Health_Curr_Direct.pdf
- Language and its link to neurology and health. 11)Darlow, B., Fullen, B. M., Dean, S., Hurley, D. A., Baxter, G. D., & Dowell, A. (2012). The association between health care professional attitudes and beliefs and the attitudes and beliefs, clinical management, and outcomes of patients with low back pain: a systematic review. European Journal of Pain, 16(1), 3–17. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1016/j.ejpain.2011.06.006/full 12)Darlow, B., Dowell, A., Baxter, G. D., Mathieson, F., Perry, M., & Dean, S. (2013). The enduring impact of what clinicians say to people with low back pain. The Annals of Family Medicine, 11(6), 527–534. http://www.annfammed.org/content/11/6/527.full 13)Nickel, B., Barratt, A., Copp, T., Moynihan, R., & McCaffery, K. (2017). Words do matter: a systematic review on how different terminology for the same condition influences management preferences. BMJ Open, 7(7), e014129. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014129 14)Richter, M., Eck, J., Straube, T., Miltner, W. H. R., & Weiss, T. (2010). Do words hurt? Brain activation during the processing of pain-related words. PAIN, 148(2), 198–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2009.08.009 15)Richter, M., Schroeter, C., Puensch, T., Straube, T., Hecht, H., Ritter, A., … Weiss, T. (2014). Pain-Related and Negative Semantic Priming Enhances Perceived Pain Intensity. Pain Research and Management, 19(2), 69–74. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/425321 16)Chooi, C. S. L., White, A. M., Tan, S. G. M., Dowling, K., & Cyna, A. M. (2013). Pain vs comfort scores after Caesarean section: a randomized trial. BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia, 110(5), 780–787. https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aes517 17)Hansen, E., & Zech, N. (2019). Nocebo Effects and Negative Suggestions in Daily Clinical Practice – Forms, Impact and Approaches to Avoid Them. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00077
- Mindfulness and how it changes physiology. 18)Ferrarelli, F., Smith, R., Dentico, D., Riedner, B. A., Zennig, C., Benca, R. M., … Tononi, G. (2013). Experienced Mindfulness Meditators Exhibit Higher Parietal-Occipital EEG Gamma Activity during NREM Sleep. PLoS ONE, 8(8), e73417. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073417 19)Hölzel, B. K., Carmody, J., Vangel, M., Congleton, C., Yerramsetti, S. M., Gard, T., & Lazar, S. W. (2011). Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 191(1), 36–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.08.006 20)Langer, E. J. (2009). Counterclockwise: Mindful Health and the Power of Possibility (1 edition). New York: Ballantine Books. https://www.amazon.com/Counterclockwise-Mindful-Health-Power-Possibility/dp/0345502043/
- Triggering improved physiology by accessing memories. 21)Speer, M. E., Bhanji, J. P., & Delgado, M. R. (2014). Savoring the Past: Positive Memories Evoke Value Representations in the Striatum. Neuron, 84(4), 847–856.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2014.09.028 22)Speer, M. E., & Delgado, M. R. (2017). Reminiscing about positive memories buffers acute stress responses. Nature Human Behaviour, 1(5), s41562-17-93–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-017-0093
Physiological basis of CFS/ME
Dr. Phil Parker has co-authored a paper on Understanding the Lightning Process Approach to CFS/ME; a Review of the Disease Process and the Approach 23)Parker. P, Aston. J, Finch. F, Understanding the Lightning Process Approach to CFS/ME; a Review of the Disease Process and the Approachhttps://jep.ro/images/pdf/cuprins_reviste/82_art_2__v.pdf which identifies the main theoretical concepts of the Lightning Process’s and contextualises them within the current evidence base.
Dr. Bruun Wyller, Hege R. Eriksen, Kirsti Malterud, leading researchers in CFS/ME, have all published some interesting papers which concur with the clinical findings of the Phil Parker Lightning Process. 24)Bruun Wyller, Vegard MD et al, “Abnormal Thermoregulatory Responses in Adolescents with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Relation to Clinical Symptoms”,Official Journal of The American Academy of Pediatrics, Vol. 120 No.1, 2 July 2007 https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/120/1/e129 25)Bruun Wyller, Vegard MD et al, Multiple Articles, Various dates https://www.med.uio.no/klinmed/personer/vit/vegardw/ 26)Bruun Wyller, Vegard MD et al, “Can Sustained Arousal explain the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome”,Behavioral and Brain Functions, 23 February 2009
Dr. Bruun Wyller says: ‘Recent research on CFS pathophysiology has revealed alterations of cardiovascular regulation and thermoregulation, characterized by enhanced sympathetic nervous activity and increased secretion of epinephrine. These findings indicate a state of permanent distress response – sustained arousal – in CFS patients. Based upon our findings, we have formulated a theory of sustained arousal in CFS, which seems to correspond quite neatly to the theoretical considerations underlying the Lightning Process.’
Pain can be changed
- Managing pain by neural retraining. 27)A longitudinal study of the efficacy of a comprehensive pain rehabilitation program with opioid withdrawal: comparison of treatment outcomes based on opioid use status at admission. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2008.08.005
- Pain levels are affected by beliefs and expectations. 28)U. Bingel, V. Wanigasekera, K. Wiech, R. Ni Mhuircheartaigh, M. C. Lee, M. Ploner, I. Tracey. The Effect of Treatment Expectation on Drug Efficacy: Imaging the Analgesic Benefit of the Opioid Remifentanil. Science Translational Medicine, 2011; 3 (70): 70ra14 DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3001244
- Pain reduction due to placebo isn’t ‘in the mind’ it is caused by the patient producing their own opioids internally.29) Medoff, Z. M., & Colloca, L. (2015). Placebo analgesia: understanding the mechanisms. Pain management, 5(2), 89–96. doi:10.2217/pmt.15.3 30)Benedetti F. (2006) Placebo and Endogenous Mechanisms of Analgesia. In: Stein C. (eds) Analgesia. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, vol 177. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-540-33823-9_14
- Pain and depression affect the same opioid systems 31)Peciña, M., Karp, J.F., Mathew, S. et al. Endogenous opioid system dysregulation in depression: implications for new therapeutic approaches. Mol Psychiatry 24, 576–587 (2019) doi:10.1038/s41380-018-0117-2
- Pain and anxiety are interlinked. 32)Min Zhuo, Neural Mechanisms Underlying Anxiety–Chronic Pain Interactions, Trends in Neurosciences,Volume 39, Issue 3,2016,Pages 136-145,ISSN 0166-2236, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2016.01.006.
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